RoHS is a compulsory standard formulated by EU legislation. Its full name is "restriction of hazardous substances". The standard has been formally implemented since July 1, 2006. It is mainly used to standardize the material and process standards of electronic and electrical products, so as to make them more conducive to human health and environmental protection. The purpose of this standard is to eliminate six substances including lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (Note: the correct Chinese name of PBDE refers to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers is wrong) in electrical and electronic products, and the content of lead should not exceed 0.1%.
RoHS outline, requirements:
Restricted toxic substances:
-Chromium (VI) hexavalent chromium
·Some brominated flame retardants:
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB's);
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE's)
The high limit indicators are:
Cadmium: 0.01% (100 ppm);
_Lead, mercury, hexavalent chromium, PBBs, PBBs: 0.1% (1000 ppm).
The RoHS Directive restricts the use of the following six types of hazardous substances
1. Examples of lead (Pb) using this material: solder, glass, PVC stabilizer
2. Examples of mercury (Hg) (mercury) use of this substance: thermostats, sensors, switches and relays, bulbs
3. Examples of cadmium (Cd) use of this substance: switches, springs, connectors, housings and PCBs, contacts, batteries
4. Examples of the use of hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+): Metallic Attached Corrosive Coatings
5. Examples of the use of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): flame retardants, PCBs, connectors, plastic enclosures
6. Examples of the use of PBDE: flame retardants, PCBs, connectors, plastic enclosures
According to the requirements of European Union WEEE&RoHS Directive, CES is to separate products according to materials and detect harmful substances according to different materials.Generally speaking:
_Metallic materials require testing of four harmful metal elements (Cd cadmium/Pb lead/Hg mercury/Cr6+hexavalent chromium)
_Plastic materials need to be tested for brominated flame retardants (PBB/PBDE) in addition to the four harmful heavy metal elements.
_At the same time, heavy metals in packaging materials of different materials need to be tested separately (94/62/EEC)
The following are the maximum concentrations of six harmful substances specified in RoHS:
Cadmium: Less than 100 ppm
Lead: Less than 1000 ppm
Less than 3500 ppm in steel alloys
Less than 4000ppm in aluminium alloy
Less than 40 000 ppm in copper alloys
Mercury: Less than 1000 ppm
Hexavalent chromium: less than 1000 ppm
Reasons for RoHS rollout
It was first noticed that heavy metals in electrical and electronic equipment that are harmful to human health were found in the cables of games machines sold in the Netherlands in 2000.In fact, lead and other harmful heavy metals are contained in solder and ink printed in packaging boxes which are widely used in the production of electrical and electronic products.
When RoHS will be implemented
The European Union will implement RoHS on July 1, 2006, when excessive limits for electrical and electronic products using or containing heavy metals and flame retardants such as PBDE and PBB will not allow them to enter the EU market.
Scope of RoHS Certification Application
27 member states of the EU: France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, United Kingdom, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Sweden, Finland, Cyprus, Hungary, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania.
Which products are specifically covered by RoHS
RoHS aims at electrical and electronic products which may contain the above six harmful substances in all production processes and raw materials, mainly including daily household appliances, such as refrigerators, washers, microwave ovens, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, water heaters, etc., black household appliances such as audio and video products, DVDs, CDs, TV receivers, IT products, digital products, communications products, etc., electric tools, electric powerElectronic toy medical electrical equipment
Current RoHS Progress
Some large companies have noticed RoHS and are beginning to take action, such as SONY's digital camera which has announced on the packaging that the product is lead-free soldering and printed with lead-free ink.
The Ministry of Information Industry also issued the Administrative Measures for the Prevention and Control of Pollution by Electronic Information Products in 2004, which is similar to RoHS. In October, the Working Group on Standards for the Prevention and Control of Pollution by Electronic Information Products was established to study and establish the standard system for the prevention and control of pollution by electronic information products in accordance with China's national conditions. Standard research and revision related to the prevention and control of pollution by electronic information products were carried out.It is also necessary to speed up the formulation of basic standards such as materials, processes, nomenclature, test methods and test methods which are urgently required by the industry.
On July 1, 2011, the EU issued a new version of the RoHS Directive - Directive 2011/65/EU in the Official Gazette (OJ).
As a directive familiar to Chinese manufacturers of electronic and electrical products, its introduction has experienced ups and downs.Due to wide divergence in the amendment process, this amendment intended to be introduced in 2009 has been delayed for a long time.In particular, there has been a heated debate within the EU, including the Commission, the European Parliament, the Council, the industry, NGOs and so on, on whether to expand the scope of products and restricted substances.
The main differences between the 2011/65/EU and the original RoHS Directive 2002/95/EU are:
1. Extended product scope: All electronic and electrical products are covered by the Directive Regulations (including cables and spare parts), but a transitional period is granted for new Class 8 medical devices and Class 9 surveillance and control instruments (including industrial surveillance instruments). In addition, 20 exemptions are granted for these two types of products (listed in Annex IV).
2. Clear up some definitions
3. The scope of controlled substances has not been enlarged, or the original limit requirements of six substances have been maintained. However, it is proposed that in the future review process, substances including DEHP should be inspected first, which paves the way for instructing the future enlargement of the scope of controlled substances.
4. The manufacturer provision was deleted and the definitions of manufacturer, authorised representative, importer and distributor were added with their responsibilities clearly defined.
5. It specifies the relevant matters on which CE mark and CE mark are to be affixed to products.
This Directive will come into force on the 20th day of its issue to OJ and Member States will need to translate it into their own laws by January 2, 2013.
The release of 2011/65/EU will have a certain impact on China's electronic and electrical product manufacturers, especially since medical devices, monitoring and control instruments are regulated, the impact on these two types of manufacturers will be enormous.
In addition, as CE signs are required on electronic and electrical products, compliance with directives by the industry will be a major challenge.
Commonly used RoHS detection methods
1. Anion: British Blue Ion Chromatography
After pretreatment with oxygen bomb combustion and British Blue technology, it is directly put into ion chromatography for analysis.
2. Cations and their valence states:
It can be detected by British Blue Cation Chromatography, Ion Selective Electrode Method and Atomic Absorption Method.
Determination of valence state of cationic elements can be analyzed by voltammetric polarography
The detection method can refer to the procedure for determining the concentration of six restricted substances in IEC62321:2008 electronic and electrical products.
A. First, non-destructive screening with XRF is fast, efficient, non-destructive and low cost.However, there are many interference factors and large errors.
B. After microwave digestion and acid digestion, the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg are determined by AAS or ICP-AES.
C. The concentration of polybrominated biphenyl and polybrominated biphenyl ether was determined by GC-MS after Soxhlet extraction.
D. Determine the concentration of Cr6+ in colorless surface layer by point test or boiling water extraction or by EPA3060A with UV-visible spectrophotometer.
RoHS is a mandatory standard established by EU legislation and its full name is the Restriction of Hazardous Substances for Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Components in Electronic and Electrical Equipment.This standard has been formally implemented since July 1, 2006. It is mainly used to standardize material and process standards of electronic and electrical products, making them more conducive to human health and environmental protection.The purpose of this standard is to eliminate 6 substances including lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyl and polybrominated biphenyl ether in electrical and electronic products, and the content of lead must not exceed 0.1%.The main sources of lead involved are the following categories.
Basic Contents of EU RoHS and WEEE Directives
On February 13, 2003, the European Parliament and the European Commission issued in their Official Gazette the Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) and the Directive on Restrictions on the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electronic and Electrical Equipment (RoHS Directive).
RoHS Directive and WEEE Directive stipulate that there are 10 categories and 102 products which are included in the management of hazardous substance limitation and scrap recovery. The first seven categories are the main export electrical products in China.Includes large household appliances, small household appliances, information and communication equipment, consumer products, lighting, electrical and electronic tools, toys, leisure and sports equipment, medical equipment (excluding implanted or infected products), monitoring and control instruments, vending machines.
On 3 December 2008, the EU issued amendments to the WEEE Directive (2002/96/EC) and the RoHS Directive (2002/95/EC).The purpose of this proposal is to create a better regulatory environment that is simple, understandable, effective and enforceable.The main elements of the amendment to the RoHS Directive are:
1. Changed the legal wording and clarified the scope and definition of the Directive
2. CE Mark for Introduced Products and EC Qualification Statement
3. Incorporate medical devices, control and monitoring instruments into the RoHS Directive in stages;
4. The six harmful substances restricted have not changed, but the four substances - hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), terephthalic acid (2-ethylhexyl ester) (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) - require a priority assessment in order to see if they will be included in the future.
For new products that have been on the market since July 1, 2006 only.